ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-)

    ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-)
    English meaning: ‘sharp; stone”
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘scharf, spitz, kantig” and ‘stein”
    Material: 1. e/o- and ü -St: Pers. üs (lengthened-grade form) “millstone, grindstone”; Gk. ἀκή “point”, lengthenedgrade form Ion. ἠκή ἀκωκή, ἐπιδορατίς, ἠκμή Hes., redupl. ἀκωκή “ point, edge “ (as ἀγωγή : ἄγω); after Kretschmer KZ. 33, 567 and Schwyzer Gk. I 348 belongs ἀκούω “hears” as *ἀκ-ους- “having sharp ear” here, see, however, 1. keu-; Alb. athëtë ‘sharp, sour”,
    Note: In Alb. athëtë (*ake-) ‘sharp, sour” + common Alb. suffix -të [common Alb. -k > -th phonetic mutation as in Alb. (*mag-) math “big”]. Lat. acēre ‘sharp, cutting, keen. Hence, to taste, biting; to touch, sharp; of sounds, shrill; of smells, penetrating; of sight, keen; of emotions, painful; of understanding, quick, vigorous, energetic”, acidus “ sour, acid, tart “, acētum “ vinegar “; maybe Alb. acar “frost, sharp steel”. with o: mbr. convoc ar vilin ‘sharpen the millstone “, Welsh hogi ‘sharpen”, O.Welsh ocoluin, nWelsh hogalen, M.Bret. hygo(u)len, Bret. higolenn “ whetstone “ (with the unclear second component; to explain Bret. vocalism of the initial sound by the pretone); mc. cyfogi “ vomit, fight “, with secondary i̯o-suffix O.Welsh cemecid, nWelsh cyfegydd (*k̂om-ok̂íi̯o-) “ pickaxe “; with zero grade: O.Welsh diauc, nWelsh diog, mbr. dieuc (*dē-ük̂ o-) “decayed, spoiled “, M.Welsh ym-am-ogawr (*-ük̂ ü-r) “ one stirs, is active “ (Loth RC. 45, 191) and mbr. eaug, Bret. eok “ ripe, made soft “ (*eks-ük̂ o-), to Gaul. exücum “ centaurion lepton “ (Ernault GlO.S.S. M.Bret. 201); compare also above S. 5; Swe. ag m. “marsh grass, Cladium mariscus, edge, blade” (*ak̂o ́-), M.H.G. ag “perch”, egle, eglinc ds., Ger. Swiss egel, Dimin. egli, O.S. agh-borre ds., maybe also Swe. agg “rancor, hatred “, agga ‘sting, torment”, Nor. dial. agge “tooth, point” (*ak̂uko- or expressive Gemination?), as well as (with secondary Gmc. vowel gradation a : u or from *ak̂uko- with assimilation a in u?) Nor. dial. ugg ‘sting, frightening”, Swe. dial. ugg “point, tooth”, O.N. uggr “fear”, Nor. dial. ugge “fin”; Lith. akúotas* “awn”, ãšaka (*ak̂o-kü) “fish bone, bran” = wRuss. osoka ‘sedge”, O.Pruss. ackons (*ak̂ōno-) ds. maybe (*esel), egjër “Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel” [common Alb. -s- > -gj- phonetic mutation], zero grade in Alb. (*osoka-) shqirë ‘sedge”.
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    *Bal.-Slav. forms with k prove none IE beside the form ak-, but is partially loanword from Veneto-Illyrian, whose area would be occupied by people from the Baltic and Slavs (Kretschmer Gl. 21, 115). Also g in Church Slavic igla explains itself on top S. 15.
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    2. i- and j- stems: Arm. aseɫn “needle” (from *asiɫn, Meillet Esquisse 43); Gk. ἀκίς, -ίδος “ point, sting “; Lat. aciēs “ keenness, edge; of the mind, penetration, insight; of the eye, a piercing look or keen vision; sometimes the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself. MiLith., battle line; hence battle, battlefield “; O.S. eggja f., O.H.G. etc ekka “point, sword edge”, Ger. Ecke (Proto-Gmc. *aʒi̯ō, O.N. egg “edge, cliff backs”, eggja ‘sharpen, spur on”, O.E. ecg “ edge, blade, sword” (from it borrows M.Ir. ecg “edge”, Bret. ek “point”), egle pl. “awns”, Eng. ails; O.C.S. osla (*osъla), Russ. osëɫok m. “whetstone”, Cz. osina f. “awn”. Maybe zero grade in Alb. (*askel), halë “needle, fishbone, awn”, [common Alb. sk- > hphonetic mutation], older Alb. (*haskel) hakël “needle, fishbone” : Lat. aculeus -i m. ‘sting, point; fig., esp. in plur., painful thoughts, cutting remarks”. It seems Alb. [together with Welsh hogi ‘sharpen”, nWelsh hogalen, M.Bret. hygo(u)len, Bret. higolenn “whetstone”] has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-. about O.E. eher “ear “ see under s- formant. 3. u-stem: Gk. ἄχυρον “chaff” see under s-formant; Lat. acus, - ūs f. “needle; fish name “, acuere ‘sharpen”, acūmen ‘sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect; cunning, trickery”, acia (*acu-i̯ü) “thread to the sewed”, aquifolium (beside ücrifolium) “holly”, aculeus ‘sting”, accipiter “hawk, falcon” (*acu-peter “quick-flying”); Maybe Alb. (*ak̂u̯-īli̯ o-) akull “ice, sharp ice”, (*accipiter) skifter “falcon, hawk”, skip(ë)tar “eagle-man”, truncated skipe, shkabë “eagle”, suffixed Gheg Shkipni “land of the eagles”. From Lat. aquila -ae f. “an eagle; miLith., an eagle as the standard of a Roman legion; architect., gable or pediment”. aquilo -onis m. “the north wind; the north”. aqua -ae f. “water” it seems that Root akʷü- (more properly ǝkʷü ): ēkʷ- : (water, river) derived from Root ak̂-, ok̂- : (sharp; stone). Gaul. acaunum (*akounon) “rock “; Illyr. ONAcumincum today Szlankamen ‘salt stone” (Banat);
    Note: Illyr. PN Acu-mincum ‘salt stone” : Alb. (*ak̂u̯-īli̯ o-) akull “ice, sharp ice”. Ger. Achel f. “ear point, awn” from N.Ger. aggel (with spirant. g) from IE *ak̂u-lü; O.E. üwel m. “fork”, O.N. soð-üll “meat fork” (Gmc. *ahwala-, IE *ák̂u̯-olo-); if here gallo-Lat. opulus “common maple “ (Marstrander, Corr. Gmc.-celt. 18), would be placed IE *ok̂u̯-olo- ; about O.N. uggr etc. see e/o-stem, about O.E. éar see s-formant; Welsh ebill “drill”, mbr. ebil “peg, nail “ (*ak̂u̯-īli̯ o -);
    Note: The mutation kw > p, b in Celtic tongues, Lat. and Gk. Balt *ašus in Ltv. ass “ sharp, pointed “, Lith. ašutaĩ m. pl. “ coarse horse hair “ = Slav. *ošuta m. “ Thistle “ in Church Slavic оsъtъ, Russ. osót. On account of here Toch. A üc̨ üwe “rough” (Van Windekens Lexique 15)? see under *ōk̂ u-s “ fast (sharp in the movement) “. 4. With m-formant: ak̂mo-/-ü Gk. ἀκμή “ point, edge, sharpness; the highest point, climax, decisive point “ (ἀκμήν adv., ἀκμαῖος, ἀκμάζω); Swe. dial. åm “ marsh grass, Cladium mariscus” (Gmc. *ahma-, compare finn. Lw. ahma “ equisetum “). ak̂-men-/-mer- O.Ind. aśman- n. “ Stone, sky “ (as a stone vault, Reichelt IF. 32, 23 ff.), aśmará- “ stone “, Av. asman-” stone, sky “ (O.Ind. gen. áśnaḥ, instr. áśnü, Av. gen. ašnō, abl. ašnüat̃ with - n- from -mn-; instr. pl. O.Ind. aśnüih ̣ after o-stem); Phryg. PN ᾽Ακμονία; Gk. ἄκμων “ anvil “, ἄκμων ὁ οὐρανός; Lith. ãšmens m. pl. “ Edge “, akmuõ, -eñs m. “ stone “. 5. With n-formant: ak̂en- O.Ind. aśáni-ḥ “ head of the arrow, missile”; Av. аsǝŋgа-, O.Pers. aϑanga- “ stone “ (*aken- go, Benveniste Orig. 28); Gk. ἄκαινα “ point, sting; longitudinal dimension “ (however, about Lat. acuna “ a cavity, hollow, dip; esp. a pool, pond. Transf., gap, deficiency, loss” see WH. I 9), ἀκόνη “ whetstone “, ἄκων, - οντος “ spear “ (for older ἄκων, *-ονος after the participles), ἀκοντίζω “ throw the spear “, ἄκανος “ thistle kind, prickly head plant “, ἀκανίζειν “ fruit carry prickly heads “, ἄκανθος “thistle” (from * ἀκαν-ανθος ‘sting flower”), ἄκανθα “ thistle, sting, thorn, spine, esp. of the fish “, ἀκαλανθίς “ goldfinch “ (from *ἀκανθαλίς), ἄκαθος “ barque “, ἀκάτη, ἀκάτιον “ woman’s shoe “ (*ak̂nṭo-, probably from the pointed form); Lat. agna “ ear of grain “ (from *ak̂nü); Goth. ahana f. “ chaff “, O.N. ǫgn, O.E. egenu f. and äegnan pl., O.H.G. agana ds., Ger. Ahne, dial. Agen ‘stalk splinter of the flax or hemp” (Gmc. *ag-, *ahanō , IE *ak̂ǝnü); Lith. žem. ašnì s “ edge, sprouting, germinating, sowing “, Ltv. asns m. “ germ bursting out “. 6. With r-formant: ak̂er-, ok̂er-
    Note: Many Germanic cognates prove that the real roots were the labiovelars: ak̂ʷer-, ok̂ʷer- O.Ir. a(i)cher ‘sharp (from the hoist)”, because of the gen. sg. Akeras (PN in the Ogham) not Lat. Lw .; O.Bret. acer-uission “with sharp fingers” (biss), ocerou pl. ‘sharpened”, O.Welsh ar-ocrion gl. atrocia; Lith. ašerỹ s, ešerỹ s “river perch”; pol. dial. jesiora (from *aserü); O.N. ǫgr ds. (from Proto-Gmc. *agura-, IE *ok̂r̥-o-), WestNor. augur (from *ǫ̣gurr, newer development from ǫgr), influenced from auga “eye”, From the extension of Root ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-): ‘sharp; stone” with r-formant derived the labiovelars: ak̂ʷer-, ok̂ʷer- whose zero grade produced Alb. (*k̂ʷerna), gurrë ‘stream” [common Alb. rn > rr shift], (*k̂ʷer-) gur ‘stone”; Here also maybe the name of the maple (due to the pointed leaf sections): Lat. acer, -eris n. “ the maple tree or maple wood “ (from acer arbor became V.Lat. acerabulus, Meyer-Lũbke REW. 93), Dan. ær ds. (Gmc. *ahira-); Ger. dial. Acher ds. (Gmc. *ahura-); Gk. ἄκαστος ἡ σφένδαμνος Hes. (*ἄκαρστος, meaning as πλατάνιστος beside πλάτανος; to stem compare also ἄκαρνα δάφνη Hes.); gallo Rome. *akaros, *akarnos “ maple “ (Hubschmied RC. 50, 263 f.); O.H.G. ahorn “maple” (from Swiss and other oral kinds would devop certainly ü -, however, ü -would have arisen also of people’s etymological distortion, like M.L.G. ünhorn, ülhorn;ahorn (IE *ak̂rno-) is up to the declension class = ἄκαρνα, while Lat. acernus “ of maple “ is syncopated from *acerinos; however, that n has probably also arisen from the former adjective Material developing formants -no- and not from r/n-stem by accumulation of both elements. Rather that counts for Gk. ἄκορνα (*-ι̯α) “ yellow thistle kind “ ἄκανος ds., maybe here also ἄκορος “ Kalmus”, ἄκορον “ his spicy root “, compare with other forms still ἄκινος f. “ odoriferous flower “, ὤκιμον “ basil “ (if here suitablly, named after the sharp smell?). ak̂ri-, ak̂ro- O.Ind. áśrih ̣ “ corner, edge, border “, catur-aśra-ḥ ̣ ‘square”; Gk. ἄκρος ‘sharply”, ἄκρον, ἄκρα, ἄκρις “point, mountaintops” (also in ἀκροάομαι as “have sharp hearing, sharpen the ear”, and ἀκρίς, -ίδος “grasshopper”, short form for ἀκροβατοῦσα “ tiptoe “, ἀκρίζουσα; ἀκρεμών “ point of the boughs “, see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 241); Lat. (to ü see Frisk IF. 56, 113 f.) ücer, ücris,-e (aLat. ücra, -um) ‘sharp, piercing, penetrating, cutting, irritating, pungent”, Osc. akrid “ sharply, fiercely, keenly “, Umbr. peracri- “ fat, plump, corpulent “ (= Lat. perücer “very sharp”, compare to meaning Gk. ἄκρος, also “ uppermost, excellent “, and ἀκμαῖoς), Lat. acerbus “ acidic, sad, harsh, bitter, unripe “ (from *ůcri-bho-s); compare Gaul. AXPOTALVS “ with high forehead “, O.Ir. ēr “high” (from *akros); Lith. ašrù s, aštrù s, O.Lith. aštras, O.C.S. ostrъ ‘sharp” (t - interpolated wording). Maybe Alb.Gheg (*akri) hakërronj “threaten, frighten”. ok̂ri-, ok̂ro- With shading o-: Gk. ὄκρις f. ‘sharp” mountain point, corner, edge “, aLat. ocris m. “ rough mountain “, Lat. mediocris “ average, mediocre, of middling size, medium, middling, moderate, ordinary “, actually “to be found halfway up “ (here ablaut could be displayed in the compound like in extorris: terra, meditullium: tellūs ), Ocriculum, Interocrea, ocrea ‘splint, a greave, legging”, Umbr. ocar, ukar, gen. ocrer “mountain, castle mountain “, marr. ocres “ a mountain, mount, range of mountains “, M.Ir. och(a)ir “ corner, edge “, from it borrows Welsh ochr “edge”. To the heteroclite paradigm *ak̂-r-(g), *ak̂-n-es (also the i- stem *ak̂i- can have combined with it) compare above ak̂men/mer-, Pedersen KZ. 32, 247, Johansson Beitr. 9, Petersson IF. 24, 269 ff.; as notable the apposition appears thereof from Gk. Κράγος “ name of different mountains “, ᾽Ακράγ-ας the “Agrigentum” which might have signified originally “ rocks, stones”. 7. With s-formant: ak̂es- : ak̂s- Gk. ἄχνη “chaff” from *ak̂-s-nü, afterwards reshuffled ἄχυρον ds. instead of *ἄκυρον; Gk. ἀκοσ-τή “Barley” (“awned, bristly “, formation like lat onus-tus, venus-tus); Gk. ἠκές ὀξύ, Hes. πυρι-ήκης “ with igneous point “, ἀμφήκης “two-edged”, τανύηκης “with long point “ (maybe only with stretch in the compound, after which the length also in simple ἠκές; however, lies lengthened grade *ük- also before in Ion. ἠκή ἀκωκή, ἐπιδορατίς, ἀκμή Hes., ἠκάδα ἠνδρωμένην γυναῖκα Hes., compare to meaning ἀκμή “climax of life”). maybe zero grade in Alb. (*ἀκοσ-τή) kash-të “chaff (*barley)” where -të is the neuter ending, (*ἄχνη), sanë “chaff”. additional formations in Gk. ὀξύς ‘sharp”, compare to formation Lith. tamsùs to O.Ind. tümas-, Lith. tamsa ̀ (in addition ὀξίνη “harrow” Hes.), ὄξος “wine vinegar”. - Also *ἀκαχμένος ‘sharpened” seems to be * ἀκ-ακσ-μένος, Hirt IF. 12, 225.
    Note: common Gk. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation Lat. acus,-eris “ a needle “ acervus (*aces-vo-s) “ a heap, mass; in logic, argument by accumulation “; Goth. ahs gen. *ahsis n., O.Ice. ax n., O.H.G. ahir, ehir n. (Gmc. *ahiz), from the pl. Ger. “ ear of corn “ f., but O.E. ear (*ahuz), dat. sg. N.hUmbr. æhher, eher ds. (about the coexistence from i-, u- and s-stems, partly already IE, but esp. in Germanic, compare Brugmann compare Gk. II 1, 522, under Specht IE Decl. 152. On account of originally IE -es- or -is-, or-us-stem display, is difficult in the isolated case to decide. compare also Sievers-Brunner AEng. Gk. pp. 128, 2 under 288 f.) ak̂-sti- Welsh eithin m. pl. “ gorse, furze” (*akstīno-), from it borrows M.Ir. aittenn ds. (with unclear sound gradation); Lith. akstìs following ‘smoked spit” (= Russ. ostъ “ point, ear, spike “), ãkstinas m. “ Sting, spur “ = O.C.S. ostъnъ m. ‘sting”, Cz. osten ds. maybe Alb. (*osten ) hosten ‘stick for driving cattle” [Alb. has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ- so this cognate is not a Slavic loanword], zero grade (*ak̂-sti- ) heshtë ‘spear”, [Lat. hasta ‘spear, sting”]. Alb. suggests that Root ĝhasto-1, ĝhazdho- : (twig; pole) derived from Root ak-̂ , ok-̂ , (ak-̂ sti- ): (sharp; stone) 8. With t- formant: O.Ind. apüṣ̌ ṭ há - m. (from *apa-aś-tha) “ barb in the arrow “; Gk. ἀκτή “ gruff coast with breaker; headland, elevation “; Toch. В üc ̨-, üc̨ c̨ e-” head, beginning “ (from *ak̂-t-).
    Note: Again there has been the shift Gk. kw > p in O.Ind. ok̂etü “harrow, device with points “: Lat. occa “harrow” from *otika by rearrangement from *okitü (Hirt IF. 37, 230)? compare different formations Gk. ὀξίνη “harrow”;
    Note: common Gk. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation O.Welsh ocet, Corn. ocet, Bret. oguet: O.H.G. egida, M.H.G. eg(e)de, O.E. eg(e)de f. (Ger. Egge renewed from the verb eggen from O.H.G. egen, ecken, Proto-Gmc. *agjan, on its part only from the Subst. *agiđō revert formation); Lith. ake ́čios, eke ́čios “ harrow”, O.Pruss. aketes “ harrows”, ē instead of e derives from the verb *akēi̯ ō in Lith. ake ́ju, ake ́ti, besides ake ́ju, eke ́ti; the anlaut (initial sound) a- frequently has become e in an unstressed position a before palatal vowel (Endzelin Ltv. Gk. 36).
    References: WP. I 28 ff., WH. I 6 ff., Specht Decl. 24, 69, 125, 271, 331. Specht KZ. 62, 210 ff. (unglaubhaft).
    See also: S. under *ok-̂ tōu “eight”, actually “ both points of the hands (without thumb) “. zero grades k̂- stuck probably in stems k̂emen-, k̂emel-, k̂ōmen- “ stone, skies “, k̂omor- “ stone hammer “, k̂ēi-, k̂ōi-, k̂ǝi- “ sharpen, whet “, k̂ū̆- “ sharp, spit, spear “.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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